Even though the diversity of actors and subsidiary policy levels is increasingly being recognized in global politics, the two traditional approaches are still dominant in informing research on governance responses in the field of climate mitigation . Second, the costs and benefits of an increasingly polycentric approach to climate mitigation governance are difficult to estimate—at least compared to the clearer governance benchmarks formulated, for instance, by top-down approaches. Taking into account a broader group of potentially relevant actors who can contribute https://www.bookstime.com/ to the goal of enhanced climate mitigation comes with a high risk of uncoordinated, or even contradictory, policies and actions. At the same time, the benefits of polycentric initiatives are difficult to aggregate and measure. The German Energiewende, for example—introduced by a single state actor apparently against the predictions of standard, rational-choice collective-action theory—could at one level lead to a few megatons of emission savings, which is projected as the cumulative annual emission savings through renewable energy use in Germany.
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- While traditional multilateral approaches to climate governance acknowledge the pivotal role of the nation-state in climate policy, a pure emphasis on polycentric differentiation might—from the perspective of ambitious climate mitigation goals—increase the risk of leaving some of the most relevant policy arenas to veto players.
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- She advocates for Lean Sigma principles and believes that emerging culture and technology have entirely changed accounting.
- Since authority for planning and permitting the development of physical infrastructure often lies within local or state jurisdictions, recognition of those actors’ conditions is crucial .
- At the same time, the benefits of polycentric initiatives are difficult to aggregate and measure.
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Tracing the connections between international business and communicable diseases. If it is the first time you login, a new account will be created automatically. Improve the presence of your podcasts, e.g., self-servicepodcaster interview… In this podcast episode, Max interviews Julia DeBari, a User Experience Design Specialist.
Critically, the coordination that these provide should be informed by the voices of researchers themselves—at all career stages, but perhaps in particular enabling early career researchers to be heard, given that they are often most acutely aware of the problematic nature of some of the incentives that currently exist in academia. Funders are mandating data sharing and open access publishing, recognising preprints, and developing new CV formats. Publishers are similarly encouraging transparency, for example, through the Transparency and Openness Promotion Guidelines . Moreover, we are seeing innovative partnerships, such as Registered Reports Funding Partnerships between funders and journals, which aim to streamline the process of applying for funding and submitting a Registered Report, in the hope that this will improve both efficiency and quality . Researchers, institutions, funders, and publishers are considering how to improve research culture and quality, but no single part of the research ecosystem can effect change on its own. The UK Reproducibility Network was established to facilitate the necessary coordination.
In September 2018, we were able to bring several funders, publishers, and other sectoral organisations together at a meeting at the University of Bristol, to discuss a model for coordinating this activity. There was enthusiastic support, and the UKRN was born, launched formally at an event at King’s College London in March 2019. PLOS Biology provides an Open Access platform to showcase your best research and commentary across all areas of biological science. Also yesterday,Reuters writer Jonathan Saulreported that, “Ukraine accused Russia on Wednesday of planting mines in the Black Seaand said some of those munitions had to bedefused off Turkeyand Romania as risks to vital merchant shipping in the region grow. •Total engaged in overt denial of climate science in late 1980s, early 1990s. •Total or predecessors aware of harmful global warming impacts since at least 1971. •Archives, interviews used to trace Total’s engagement with global warming since 1970s.
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This structure allows us to support activity at the grassroots through our local networks, while also harmonising activity across institutions. For example, in the UK, many of our institutions have introduced Open Research Prizes and are incorporating open research practices into their promotion criteria. It also allows us to broker partnerships between other organisations, such as Registered Reports Funding Partnerships . For example, in the UK, we have been able to link our Local Network Leads directly with major sectoral organisations such as UK Research and Innovation—responsible for directing public research and innovation funding within the UK—when they were consulting on the scope of the planned UK Committee on Research Integrity . We were able to connect our Local Network Leads with key individuals within UKRI, to provide their perspective.
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- For example, we have developed a survey of open research practices that we will deploy across reproducibility networks, with a view to benchmarking the current state of open research practices within and across countries.
- The expansion of renewable industries is an example of private benefits for related actors (Meckling et al. 2015).
- •Total engaged in overt denial of climate science in late 1980s, early 1990s.
- Organizations such as the International Carbon Action Partnership or the World Bank–driven Partnership for Market Readiness focus on fostering such policy diffusion processes related to carbon market design.
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- PLOS Biology provides an Open Access platform to showcase your best research and commentary across all areas of biological science.
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- Advances in remote sensing technology and greater availably of high-resolution data, from both field assessments and from satellites, are needed to improve both understanding and prediction of forest responses to future climate change.
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- Our target was to recruit 10 institutions as institutional members in 3 years, but we recruited this number in less than a year , driven perhaps by the Research Excellence Framework in the UK, which provided an incentive for institutions to join.
- A polycentric approach deliberately aims at enhancing this learning curve—for example, by means of orchestration or policy learning.
- For example, the German Energiewende is not one single huge experiment, but an incremental process involving many technological and political experiments.
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We also are able to operate on a modest budget that supports an administrator, our website, and support for key initiatives. Our strategy was to ask for modest support (ranging from £500 to £10,000 per year over 3 years) from a relatively large number of funders. This approach may work best in countries with a sufficient number of funders to support this approach, but it lowered the barrier to entry for these funders, given that the amount requested was modest. •IPIECA played key role in coordinating international oil industry beginning in 1980s. She advocates for Lean Sigma principles and believes that emerging culture and technology have entirely changed accounting. Who has gained vast expertise working with multinational BPOs and companies in the finance sector. She’s worked for over 11 years with several industries, including accounting, energy, automotive, and shared services.
International multilateralism, with the UNFCCC and the Conferences of Parties at its core, remains a central—but not exclusive—forum for global climate governance. Other actors and fora are also contributing to a dynamically evolving web of policies at different scales and on different governance levels. In bi- and minilateral agreements, such as the US-China climate agreement and the EU, G7, or G20 commitments, many nation-states coordinate and mutually foster their climate policies (Falkner 2016; Rayner and Jordan 2013). Subnational governments unilaterally drive policy change (e.g., Hakelberg 2014; Urpelainen 2009), and self-organize into transnational networks such as C40 or ICLEI to commit to specific climate and energy targets, introduce review schemes, and organize policy transfer (Bulkeley et al. 2014; Hoffmann 2011). Regardless of the new evolving cast of governance actors (Newell et al. 2012), nation-states and their governments remain key actors in climate governance.
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The failures of these experiments, together with the success stories, facilitate innovation and knowledge, policy, and technology transfer, as well as ongoing adaptation of the respective governance designs. As an example, the carbon price drops in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative or the EU Emissions Trading Scheme have arguably led to a better understanding of these policy instruments (e.g., Knopf et al. 2014). Today, lessons learned from the EU ETS are helping improve the design of novel ETSs to be adopted elsewhere—for example, in China. A polycentric approach deliberately aims at enhancing this learning curve—for example, by means of orchestration or policy learning. Organizations such as the International Carbon Action Partnership or the World Bank–driven Partnership for Market Readiness focus on fostering such policy diffusion processes related to carbon market design.
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In descriptive terms, there is an advantage in being able to account for the increasing number of actors who are relevant to and participate in real-world climate mitigation. Importantly, cognitive models inform action—also with regard to different approaches to climate governance. Acknowledging the increasingly polycentric structure of global climate governance is important to better understanding and governing its dynamics.
First, one of the most important promises suggested by the preceding analysis is that the fundamental dilemma of strong free-riding incentives, which foil effective global mitigation, might be at least in part mitigated. Still, strong free-rider incentives for some actors will very likely continue to exist. Splintering the problem by extending the set of potentially relevant policy arenas opens up corridors to “exploit” the willingness of a diversity of actors to contribute to the policy solution, but site-specific free-riding incentives, leakage effects, and the persistent resistance of opposing actors are likely to prevail.
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Sovacool shows, in four case studies of effective climate and energy governance, how individual polycentric components can successfully alleviate collective-action dilemmas. Abbott favors horizontal and vertical linkages of transnational climate institutions, while preserving their generally valuable diverse and decentralized polycentric order. Cole highlights the advantages of a polycentric approach to climate policy, focusing primarily on the pivotal role that higher levels of mutual trust between representatives from major emitting nations can play in fostering mitigation policies. And Jordan et al. critically discuss promising strands of the literature on new, dynamic forms of climate governance, but call for scientific and political efforts to strengthen the understanding and effectiveness of the rather diverse polycentric patterns. It is widely recognized that mitigating climate change requires some form of global collective action. However, current global collective action is insufficient to achieve the goal of limiting global warming to well below 2° C . Nevertheless, much climate mitigation action currently can be observed worldwide.
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Reproducibility networks are fundamentally peer-led organisations, with the aim of raising research quality and promoting initiatives that may help achieve this, as well as supporting a positive research culture. This includes the investigation of factors that contribute to robust research, promoting training activities and disseminating best practice, and working across local networks, institutions, and external stakeholders to ensure coordination of efforts across the sector. The key feature of reproducibility networks is their structure, which is flexible enough to allow for national, institutional, and disciplinary TOA Global differences, while also enabling coordination of activity within and between these agents in the research ecosystem. Our approach to setting up UKRN—the first reproducibility network—is outlined in Box 1. We find that people revise their beliefs about climate change upward when experiencing warmer than usual temperatures in their area. Using international data, we show that attention to climate change, as proxied by Google search volume, increases when the local temperature is abnormally high. In financial markets, stocks of carbon-intensive firms underperform firms with low carbon emissions in abnormally warm weather.